Biro Iklan

Biro iklan (advertising agency) diartikan sebagai suatu organisasi usaha yang memiliki keahlian untuk merancang, mengkoordinasi, mengelola, dan atau memajukan merek, pesan, dan atau komunikasi pemasaran untuk dan atas nama pengiklan dengan memperoleh imbalan atas layanannya tersebut. Dengan demikian, perusahaan periklanan adalah termasuk kategori perusahaan jasa.
Struktur Biro Iklan

1. Bina Usaha (Account Management)
Secara singkat, departemen ini berfungsi sebagai ‘jembatan’ antara klien-klien suatu biro iklan dengan departemen-departemen lainnya di biro iklan tersebut
2. Perencanaan Strategis (Strategic Planning)

Departemen ini berfungsi untuk membantu departemen Bina Usaha dan Kreatif dalam menemukan ide-ide dasar pemecahan masalah komunikasi pemasaran dari klien biro iklan. Pada beberapa biro iklan, fungsi ini masih digabungkan dengan fungsi dari departemen Bina Usaha.

3. Kreatif

Departemen ini berfungsi sebagai ‘dapur’ dari suatu biro iklan. Di departemen inilah permasalahan komunikasi pemasaran klien dicoba dipecahkan. Tim kreatif memperoleh masukan dari para Perencana Strategis. Kualitas dari taklimat yang diperoleh dari Perencana Strategis inilah yang akan menentukan titik awal kualitas keluaran dari suatu tim kreatif; seperti kata pepatah Inggris: Garbage In, Garbage Out.
4. Media
Departemen ini bertanggung-jawab dalam memberikan solusi kepada klein berkaitan dengan pengaturan anggaran/biaya pemasangan iklan klien di media massa. Dalam Departemen ini biasanya terdapat beberapa sub-fungsi yaitu: Perencanaan Media (Media Planning), Negosiasi Media (Media Negotiation), dan Pelaksanaan Media (Media Implemention atau Media Buyer).
Ada beberapa departemen lainnya yang mempunyai fungsi yang menunjang keberhasilan ke empat departemen tersebut. Berikut ini uraian singkat dari beberapa departemen penunjang tersebut:

1.StudioKreatif

Departemen ini bertanggung-jawab untuk merubah ide-ide yang ditemukan oleh tim kreatif (Pengarah Seni ataupun Penulis Naskah) kedalam bentuk yang dapat lebih “mudah” dilihat dan dipahami oleh khalayak

2. Produksi Cetak dan Audio Visual

Departemen ini bertanggung-jawab untuk meneruskan proses kerja yang dilakukan di departemen Studio Kreatif sampai suatu materi iklan benar-benar siap ditayangkan. Produksi Cetak bertanggung-jawab untuk bekerja sama dengan percetakan sehingga menghasilkan materi-materi iklan cetak. Sedangkan Produksi Audio Visual akan bekerja sama dengan rumah produksi iklan TV maupun rumah produksi radio untuk menghasilkan iklan-iklan TV atau radio

3. Pencarian Model (Casting/Talent Department)

Departemen ini berfungsi untuk membantu tim kreatif dan tim Produksi Cetak dan Audio Visual dalam menyediakan alternatif model iklan yang sesuai dengan ide tim kreatif. Model ini dalam pengertian yang seluas-luasnya, dalam arti, bisa saja model itu adalah sebagai seorang individu secara lengkap, bisa pula hanya model untuk suatu bagian tubuh tertentu (model rambut, model tangan, model kaki dan lain-lain), termasuk juga model suara.

4. Manajemen Proyek (Project Management)
Departemen ini berfungsi sebagai ‘pengawas’ (controller) atas berlangsungnya suatu proses kerja perusahaan periklanan. Keberhasilan departemen ini akan ditentukan oleh kriteria-kriteria berikut:
1. Pekerjaan yang tepat waktu (on-time)
2. Anggaran/biaya yang tidak melebihi rencana awal (on- budget)
3. Kualitas yang tepat/sesuai dengan pesanan (on-quality)
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5. Departemen Lini Bawah (Below-The-Line Department)
Departemen ini akan sangat bervariasi dari satu biro iklan ke biro iklan lainnya. Hal ini didorong oleh makin derasnya kebutuhan akan promosi yang bersifat “lini bawah”. Promosi “lini atas” biasanya dikaitkan dengan promosi melalui media-media yang konvensional; seperti media cetak (koran, majalah, tabloid, billboard dan lain sebagainya), media audio (radio), dan media audio visual (televisi, bioskop). Pengembangan lebih detil dari fungsi ini akan tergantung dari orientasi bisnis suatu perusahaan periklanan. Pengertian mengenai promosi ’lini bawah’ inipun saat ini terus berkembang dengan pesat dan semakin luas areanya.

Slide 8

6. Riset Media (Media Research)
Departemen ini sangat erat berhubungan dengan fungsi Perencanaan Media. Fungsi mereka adalah membantu Perencana Media dengan memberikan masukan-masukan mengenai perilaku konsumen yang berkaitan dengan penggunaan media massa (misalnya: seberapa sering seseorang membaca koran per minggunya, dimana atau kapan mereka paling sering membaca koran dan lain sebagainya).
7. Jasa Terpadu (Central Service Division)
Divisi ini merupakan gabungan dari beberapa departemen penunjang yang bersifat umum (nyaris selalu ada di perusahaan manapun juga). Dalam divisi ini terdapat antara lain fungsi keuangan, pajak, akunting, bagian umum, personalia/SDM, dan teknologi informasi yang Penulis rasa tidak perlu dijabarkan di sini.

Advertising agency

An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating, planning and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for its clients. An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client’s products or services. An agency can also handle overall marketing and branding strategies and sales promotions for its clients.

Typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations, non-profit organizations and government agencies. Agencies may be hired to produce single ads or, more commonly, ongoing series of related ads, called an advertising campaign.

Types of advertising agencies

Ad agencies come in all sizes. They include everything from one or two-person shops (which rely mostly on freelance talent to perform most functions), small to medium sized agencies, large independents, and multi-national, multi-agency conglomerates such as Omnicom Group, WPP Group,Publicis, Interpublic Group of Companies and Havas.

An agency’s size should not necessarily be considered a barometer of their billing or ability to handle large accounts. Indeed, these days, smaller boutique agencies are just as likely to count very large corporations amongst their accounts.

Full-service, or Media-neutral advertising agencies have the talent and ability to produce creative and advise clients for a full range of media, for virtually any type of account, or company. Some agencies specialize in particular fields such as medical, charitable, FMCG, white goods, retail, etc. Other agencies specialize in particular media, such as print ads or television commercials. Other agencies, especially larger ones, produce work for many types of media (creating integrated marketing communications, or through-the-line (TTL) advertising). The “line”, in this case, is the traditional marker between media that pay a (traditionally 15%) commission to the agency (mainly broadcast media) and the media that do not. Most Full-Service agencies work on a combination of fee-based (to help offset the cost of non-commission production and planning) and commission based (the traditional 15% for electronic) compensation.

Interactive Agencies may differentiate themselves by offering a mix of Web Design/Development, Search Engine Marketing, Internet Advertising/Marketing, or E-Business/E-Commerce consulting. Interactive agencies rose to prominence before the traditional advertising agencies fully embraced the Internet. Offering a wide range of services, some of the interactive agencies grew very rapidly, although some have downsized just as rapidly due to changing market conditions. Today, the most successful interactive agencies are defined as companies that provide specialized advertising and marketing services for the digital space. The digital space is defined as any multi-media enabled electronic channel that an advertiser’s message can be seen or heard from. The ‘digital space’ translates to the; Internet, Kiosks, CD-ROMs, DVDs, and Lifestyle Devices (iPod, PSP, and Mobile). Interactive Agencies function similar to advertising agencies although they focus solely on interactive advertising services. They deliver services such as strategy, creative, design, video, development, programming (Flash and otherwise), deployment, management, and fulfillment reporting. Often times, Interactive Agencies offerings are; Digital Lead Generation, Digital Brand Development, Interactive Marketing and Communications Strategy, Rich Media Campaigns, Interactive Video brand experiences, Web 2.0 website design and development, e-Learning Tools, email marketing, SEO/SEM services, Content Management Services, web application development, and overall Data Mining & ROI Assessment.

Lately, Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and Search Engine Optimization (SEO) firms have been classified by some as ‘agencies’ due to the fact that they are creating media and implementing media purchases of text based (or image based in some instances of search marketing) ads. This relatively young industry has been slow to adopt the term ‘agency’ however with the creation of ads (either text or image) and media purchases they do qualify technically as an ‘advertising agency’ as well as recent studies suggest that both SEO and SEM are set to outpace magazine spending in the next 3-5 years.

Not all advertising is created by agencies. Companies that create and plan their own advertising are said to do their work in house.

Inside the agencies

Creative department

The creative department — the people who create the actual ads — form the core of an advertising agency. Modern advertising agencies usually form their copywriters and art directors into creative teams. Creative teams may be permanent partnerships or formed on a project-by-project basis. The art director and copywriter report to a creative director, usually a creative employee with several years of experience. Although copywriters have the word “write” in their job title, and art directors have the word “art”, one does not necessarily write the words and the other draw the pictures; they both generate creative ideas to represent the proposition (the advertisement or campaign’s key message). Creative departments frequently work with outside design or production studios to develop and implement their ideas. Creative departments may employ production artists as entry-level positions, as well as for operations and maintenance.

Account services

The other major department in ad agencies is account services or account management. Account Services or account management is somewhat the sales arm of the advertising agency. An account executive (one who works within the account services department) meets with the client to determine sales goals and creative strategy. They are then responsible for coordinating the creative, media, and production staff behind the campaign. Throughout the creative process, they keep in touch with the client to update them on the ad’s progress and gain feedback. Upon completion of the creative work, it is their job to ensure the ad’s production and placement.

Creative services

The creative services department may not be so well known, but its employees are the people who have contacts with the suppliers of various creative media. For example, they will be able to advise upon and negotiate with printers if an agency is producing flyers for a client. However, when dealing with the major media (broadcast media, outdoor, and the press), this work is usually outsourced to a media agency which can advise on media planning and is normally large enough to negotiate prices down further than a single agency or client can.

Other departments and personnel

In small agencies, employees may do both creative and account service work. Larger agencies attract people who specialize in one or the other, and indeed include a number of people in specialized positions: production work, Internet advertising, or research, for example.

An often forgotten, but still important, department within an advertising agency is traffic. The traffic department regulates the flow of work in the agency. It is typically headed by a traffic manager (or system administrator). Traffic increases an agency’s efficiency and profitability through the reduction of false job starts, inappropriate job initiation, incomplete information sharing, over- and under-cost estimation, and the need for media extensions. In small agencies without a dedicated traffic manager, one employee may be responsible for managing workflow, gathering cost estimates and answering the phone, for example. Large agencies may have a traffic department of ten or more employees.

Advertising interns are typically university juniors and seniors who are genuinely interested in and have an aptitude for advertising. Internships at advertising agencies most commonly fall into one of six areas of expertise: account services, creative, interactive, media, public relations and traffic.

An internship program in account services usually involves fundamental work within account management as well as offering exposure to other facets of the agency. The primary responsibility of this position is to assist account managers. Functions of the account management intern may include:

• Research and analysis: Gathering information regarding industry, competition, customer product or service; as well as presenting findings in verbal/written form with recommendations

• Involvement in internal meetings and, when appropriate, client meetings

• Assisting account services in the management of creative projects

Interns often take part in the internal creative process, where they may be charged with creating and managing a website as well as developing an advertising campaign. Hands on projects such as these help interns learn how strategy and well-developed marketing are essential to a sound advertising and communications plan.

During their internship, the intern will experience the development of an ad, brochure and broadcast or communications project from beginning to end. During the internship, the intern should be exposed to as much as possible within the agency and advertising process.

Largest advertising groups

According to the Research Company Evaluating the Media Agency Industry, the 2004 top-six largest advertising groups ranked by worldwide billings were:

WPP Group: $48.055 Billion

Publicis: $34.365 Billion

Interpublic Group: $27.870 Billion

Omnicom Group: $25.230 Billion

Aegis Group: $20.355 Billion

Havas: $8.775 Billion

List of advertising agencies

Below is a list of the major advertising agencies and marketing groups in the world, according to trade magazine Advertising Age.

By 2005 worldwide revenue

Rank           Agency                 Headquarters        Revenue (US$ millions)

1

Omnicom Group                     New York City     10,481.1

BBDO

DDB Worldwide

TBWA\Worldwide

Element 79 Partners

Goodby Silverstein & Partners

Arnell Group

GSD&M

Roberts & Tarlow

Zimmerman Advertising

Merkley & Partners

Martin/Williams

2

WPP Group                                                London       10,032.2

Grey Global Group

JWT

Ogilvy & Mather

Young & Rubicam

3

Interpublic Group of Companies      New York City     6,274.3

Campbell Mithun

Campbell-Ewald

Dailey & Associates

Deutsch Inc.

Draftfcb

Hill Holliday

Lowe Worldwide

Mullen Advertising

The Martin Agency

McCann-Erickson

TM Advertising

4

Publicis Groupe                                Paris                     5,107.2

Bartle Bogle Hegarty (49% owned)

Fallon Worldwide

Leo Burnett Worldwide

Publicis & Hal Riney

Saatchi and Saatchi

5

Dentsu*                                            Tokyo                   2,887.8

6

Havas         Suresnes                                  France                  1,808.0

Euro RSCG

Arnold Worldwide

Messner

7        Aegis Group         London                 1,577.6

8        Hakuhodo DY Holdings*                  Tokyo                   1,364.0

9        Asatsu-DK                              Tokyo                   444.8

10

MDC Partners                                   Toronto/New York City          443.5

Crispin Porter and Bogusky

Kirshenbaum Bond and Partners

Margeotes Fertitta and Powell

11      Carlson Marketing Group*     Minneapolis                   370.0

12      Sapient Corp.                          Cambridge, Massachusetts      358.4

13      Digitas                                     Boston                  340.5

14      aQuantive (Owned by Microsoft) [1]          Seattle         258.4

15      Aspen Marketing Services       West Chicago, Illinois    229.0

16      Media Square*                        London                 215.0

17      HealthSTAR Communications*        Woodbridge, New Jersey         213.0

18      Cheil Communications            Seoul                    210.7

19      George P. Johnson Co.            Auburn Hills, Michigan 193.0

20      Epsilon Wakefield,                  Massachusetts      184.4

21      TBA Global Events       Woodland Hills, California     175.0

22      Monster Worldwide       New York City     168.6

23      Clemenger Communications    Melbourne  166.0

24      WB Doner & Company Southfield, Michigan      164.3

25      Cossette Communication Group       Quebec City         164.1

26      Tokyu Agency      Tokyo         154.1

27      Media Consulta    Berlin          152.2

28      Alloy Media & Marketing       New York City     151.8

29      Richards Group   Dallas         148.0

30      Mosaic Sales Solutions  Irving, Texas        146.1

31      STW Group         Sydney       134.0

32      Bartle Bogle Hegarty*   London       128.1

33      M&C Saatchi       London       123.3

34      LB Icon       Stockholm/Amsterdam  121.3

35      InChord Communications       Westerville, Ohio 118.0

36      Chime Communications PLC  London       114.2

37      Marketing Store   Lombard, Illinois  108.2

38      Merkle        Lanham, Maryland        108.0

39      Wieden+Kennedy*         Portland, Oregon  102.9

40      RPA  Santa Monica       102.2

41      DVC Worldwide* Morristown, New Jersey         100.4

42      Scholz & Friends Group         Hamburg    99.0

43      Armando Testa Group* Turin 98.0

44      Cramer-Krasselt   Chicago      96.2

45      Serviceplan Agenturgruppe     Munich       91.8

46      ChoicePoint Precision Marketing      Alpharetta, Georgia       91.5

47      Harte-Hanks Direct        Langhorne, Pennsylvania        88.5

48      SourceLink Elk Grove Village, Illinois       86.6

49      Protocol Integrated Direct Marketing*       Deerfield, Illinois  84.0

50      Asahi Advertising          Tokyo         81.4

*estimate

Other notable agencies

Listed alphabetically. These agencies have won major national and international advertising awards for multimillion-dollar clients, or they were among the earliest agencies created.

Ally & Gargano (1963-1991)

Bozell Worldwide (founded in 1921)

Cordiant Communications Group

Della Femina, Travisano and Partners

D’Arcy Masius Benton & Bowles (1906-2002)

FK3 – Communicating Innovation

la comunidad

MARC USA

N. W. Ayer & Son (1869-2002)

Lord & Thomas (founded 1873, became Foote, Cone & Belding in 1942)

Neathawk Dubuque & Packett (founded in 1963)

Scali, McCabe and Sloves (founded 1967, acquired by Lowe Worldwide in 1993)

ADVERTISING MANAGEMENT

Advertising is a management function. While advertising is the event, advertising Management is the whole process – a function of marketing starting from market research continuing through Advertising leading to actual sales or achievement of objective. But Advertising Management does not stop here. It goes further in regard to evaluation of the whole cost-benefits that were involved in the whole exercise.

This means that if there is a public service ad with an objective to increase domestic saving, the evaluation would take place in terms of the actual increase in domestic savings as can be found from banks and other financial institutions. If it’s about launch of a new product, then the evaluation would be in terms of benefits derived from the cost sunk in the advertising campaign.

Advertising management incorporates various specialised sub-functions like media strategy, message strategy, media planning, media buying etc.

While advertising management is an inseparable part of the marketing department, usually, the marketing department of an organisation is concerned more with market research and evaluation of results. All the critical processes of advertising management are generally outsourced to specialised Advertising agencies. For example the media buying is done in bulk by these ad agencies on which they receive discount / commission, that goes into their earning. It is a very creative field as it involves designing the strategies to be adopted for influencing the public ie media selection and deciding on the aspect to be advertised based on the image of the company and the present marketing objective.It then involves deciding on the ad message to be communicated which should capture the public attention!

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